The Dams in India are found built across the perennial rivers of the country. These dams are built as a part of various multi-purpose projects which vary from one state to another. The basic purpose of a Dam is to control the flow of the water of the river so that the stored water can be used for a variety of purposes in the adjoining areas. Ranging from the production of the electricity, to supply water for irrigation, the dams also have the purpose of controlling the nearby areas from floods. The dams can also facilitate afforestation in the catchment areas of the reservoirs of the rivers. The dams also provide ample amount of water for the purpose of providing drinking waters to the neighborhood population. The waters are also used for the creation of canal which can be used for irrigational purposes. The canals also facilitate the pisciculture or the breeding of the fishes and other such activities. The Dams that are found in India all serve more or less the same above-mentioned aspects for the growth and developments of the urban as well as the rural habitation of the country.
Some of the notable dams of India are
Bhakra-Nangal Project of the State of Punjab, The Damodar Valley Project of West Bengal and Bihar, Rihand Project of Uttar Pradesh, Tungabhadra Project of Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh, The Hirakud Project of Orissa etc. Some other notable Dams are Farakka Barrage, Tehri Dam, Ranganga Dam, Vaigai Dam, Kallanai Anaicut, Rangit Dam, Jawahar Sagar Dam, Balimela Reservoir, Isapur Dam,, Tansa, Khuga Dam,Bansagar Dam, Matupetty Dam, Chakra Dam, Linganamakki Dam, Maithon Dam, Bursar Dam, Salal Hydroelectrict Power Project, Ranjeet Sagar Dam, Pong Dam Rservoir, Sukhi Dam, Salaulim Dam, Ranganadi Dam, Koil Sagar Dam, Somasila, Praakasham Barrage, Nagarjuna Sagar Dam, Temghar Dam, Koklkewadi Dam, Loktak Dam, Bansagar Dam, Pothundi Dam, Vazhani Dam, Taraka Reservoir, Chikahole Dam, Kadra Dam, Tilaiya Dam, Palna Dam, Sawalkot Dam, Bursar Dam, Chamera Dam, Ukai Dam, Kakrapar Dam, Dudhwa Dam, Hasdeo Bango Dam, Ranganadi Dam, Singur Dam, Somasila Project, and Polavaram Dam etc.
Photo by Bureau of Reclamation
About the construction of Dam in India
The very process of the construction of the Dam in India was extremely prolonged as well as multifarious. The construction required sound and efficient knowledge as well as expertise along with the suitability of certain geographical factors that occur naturally. One of the particular determinants of the construction of Dams in India is the suitability of the topography of the entire area. The gradient of the river has a strong influence for the locations of the Dam. The elevated levels of the upstream levels of the water flow help in the storage of the waters which in turn, help in various collateral activities. In these areas, specifically, new dams were able to be constructed because the river moved in a modestly inclined topography. After a certain point, the impact of the water fails to promote the development of the agricultural sector of that place. So, the dams were cleverly built by the authorities where the speeds of the flow of the rivers were at the peak. Thanks to the variation in the landscapes of India, dams were effectively built which helped in the growth and development of the country.
The development of the dams that are found in India
Rajasthan has recently joined itself in the Dam project of Punjab’s Bhakra-Nangal. In fact, this project is considered to be the largest multi-purpose project of the country. The construction of this Dam started in the year 1948, and the Dam was complemented in the year 1968. The name of the Dam was derived from the two dams called the Sutlej and the Bhakra. The Dam is built on the tributary of the Sutlej River and the Indus River. The Hirakud Dam Project of Orissa is the first Multipurpose Dam project of India that was built after the time of the Independence. This Dam was built on the across the 15 kilometers stretch of the Mahanadi River, on the upstream. The river lies in the town of Sambalpur, and the Dam can be easily accessed from National Highway number six. The Rihand Dam of the state of Uttar Pradesh is another important, multipurpose project of India which is constructed at the narrow gorge in the Vindhyan range of the mountains. The dam lies in the Mirzapur District of the state. Next comes the project of Tungabhadra which is undertaken by the Government of Karnataka as well as the Andhra Pradesh. The Dam is built in a prolonged length of 2441 meters with the height of 49.38 meters. This Dam is built across the Tungabhadra River in the district of Mullapuram. The Dam also has a barrage built across the Damodar River in West Bengal’s Durgapur.
Photo by tanaykibe
The advantages of the dams built across Indian rivers
The year before that of the Indian Impendence, there were no less than 300 dams which were built across the country by the erstwhile rulers of the country. The very number of the dams increased to 4100 by the year 2017. This is the highest for any country in the world, right after the Unites States of America and the China. Some of the primary dams of the country were built for the supplying of foods and water for the people who lived in the nearby areas of the constructed dams. Later on, the dams were used for the purpose of generating electricity. In the field of irrigation also, the Dam plays an important role. By supplying the proper amount of water is necessary for a fruitful irrigation, which can only be supplied by the stagnant waters of the Dams, built across any river. Most of the Dams that are found in the rivers of India have humongous walls built across them. The walls act as reservoirs and store the water until they are manually released in a controlled way. Dams play an important role in the development of India.